“Raise your head, Samira!” And Other “Women Making Democracy”

I am calling it bold, inspiring and a timely summit of brilliant women-minds, but a long list of impressed qualifiers would apply to “Women Making Democracy” at Harvard’s Radcliffe Institute, Friday, March 30.

Intent on writing a thoughtful and comprehensive review of this conference, I had hoped to watch and rewind the announced video recordings, but it now appears they will not be available in the short-term. In the meantime, I will reflect on questions raised and lessons learned, by using the tweets of #RadCon participants—including my own—as notes. Given the scope of this blog at present, I will turn a spotlight on panelists who addressed realities and developments in Egypt and Tunisia.

Clearly, some speakers were more optimistic than others about the future of democracy and the role of women—beyond elections and the writing of these countries’ new constitutions. Moreover, different interpretations of Islam informed their visions.

Tunisian scholar, Dalenda Larguèche, Professor of History and Women Studies at the Université de la Manouba, declared that gender parity is already an irreversible gain of the Tunisian Revolution. During a discussion on the political representation of women and the good and bad of quotas, Rima Khalaf—undersecretary General and Executive Secretary, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia—said that “quotas are a temporary measure to address a deficiency in the system,” but to be relevant they must be competitive.

How relevant and competitive are they? According to QuotaProject, in Egypt, women hold two percent of the seats in the People’s Assembly. In Tunisia, women hold 26 percent of the seats in the National Constituent Assembly. While Dr. Larguèche has reason to be more optimistic about Tunisia, quotas and matters of representation are not reduced to gender.  Egyptian panelist, Dr. Heba Raouf Ezzat,

Heba Raouf Ezzat

an Assistant Professor with the Department of Political Science at Cairo University, pointed out that she’s yet to see one young woman represented in these quotas.

In the face of elections results in both countries, with overwhelming majorities achieved by Islamist parties, the issue of religion was in order. On the topic of Sharia law, Dr. Heba Raouf pointed out that conservatism is much more dominant in Egyptian society than Sharia law itself. Earlier in the conference, Egyptian journalist Shahira Amin also defended that Egyptians are not ultra-religious but moderate by nature—and, she added, the Muslim Brotherhood swept the elections based on their superior organization.

Egypt-born Dalia Mogahed—Executive Director and Senior Analyst for the Gallup Center for Muslim Studies, and co-author of Who Speaks for Islam?: What a Billion Muslims Really Think­—shared seemingly corroborating data on Tunisia: a Gallup poll found that 10 percent of Tunisians want no legislative role for Sharia, while the majority wants Sharia to play some role in informing the country’s laws. According to Mohaged, while there are very different views of the role of religion in society, there is greater agreement about the role of women. To Mohaged, it is important that women’s rights not be seen as excluded by religion, and she defended that progress in men’s views of women are not tied to the secularization of society but around human development. One speaker cited Bangladesh as an example of a predominantly Islamist country with a strong women’s movement. Rima Khalaf distinguished “ruling by Sharia” from “drafting laws by Sharia,” and emphasized the danger of the former: it is no law at all as it relies on interpretation, she argued.

Shahira Amin, Egyptian journalist.

Journalist Shahira Amin, one of the hopefuls, said she’s not worried about the Islamists. Moreover, she’s optimistic for the women of Egypt. Consider this: 10 million Egyptian women have graduate degrees (population is 81 million)! But there’s optimism for the men as well. Remember Samira Ibrahim, one of the victims of the so-called “virginity tests” who braved the military doctor in court? Amin was there when hundreds protested the acquittal of the defendant. She reported that men and women alike shouted, “Samira, hold your head high!” I must say, long after memories of this conference have faded, I will remember this chant!

Men and women protested outside the High Court of Justice. Photographed by Virginie Nguyen. Published by Egypt Independent.

Reflecting on the meaning of the Arab Spring movements, Amin said they are much more than a unique, unforeseen phenomenon. They represent—and have inspired—a broader category of collective global commitment to “having a voice.” Blogger and Rhode Island University PhD candidate and professor, Jenn Brandt—a remote attendee of the conference– tweeted an even greater commitment:

And how’s this for the role of women?

Closing words by a conference rapporteur:

__________________________________________________________

MEN MAKING DEMOCRACY:

There were two equally brilliant men on the conference dais: Architect Dr. Hashim Sarkis, Aga Khan Professor of Landscape Architecture and Urbanism in Muslim Societies, Department of Urban Planning and Design, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University. Representing the link between space/architecture and democratization movements, Dr. Sarkis moderated a panel on “Public Places, Alternative Spaces.” 

Presenters on the fluidity of, and between, the political and the public spheres, included Dr. Philip N. Howard, a communications professor with Washington University. Dr. Howard elaborated on the role of digital space–how it exposes the status of women and gender relations worldwide, and how it is changing family dynamics. “Women have aggressively invaded the new public space of digital media,” Dr. Howard said.

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Egypt: MPs, Writers’ Union Demand Consensus Constitution

Citing a lack of representation–for women, youth, religious groups, political movements, geographic regions–fourteen MPs (Members of Parliament) and other secular elements of Egypt’s constitution-writing assembly had withdrawn their participation by Monday afternoon, according to Egypt Independent. The 100-member assembly tasked with drafting the country’s new constitution is dominated by Parliament members from the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) and the Salafi Nour Party.

Egypt's Parliament (AP Image. Accessed at Ahram Online.)

Some resigning members went beyond issues of representation and the urgency of a consensus-based constitution to decry the parliamentary majority’s takeover of the drafting assembly. While recognizing the Islamists’ majority right to broader representation, the independent MP Amr Hamzawy argued that nominations to the committee were influenced by political affiliation over competence and relevant expertise. On Sunday, Hamzawy polled his constituents on facebook on whether he should remain as a representative on the drafting panel–eventually siding with the minority and his conscience. His statement to the assembly specifically rejected “the marginalization of women, youth, Copts and the exclusion of several of Egypt’s competent legal and economic experts.”

Monday’s committee resignations were preceded on Sunday by the Union of Egyptian Writers’ (UEW) strong condemnation of the election process to the constituent committee. According to Ahram Online, 50 percent of members were chosen from the Islamist-dominated People’s Assembly and Shura Council, and 50 percent from outside parliament.  The UEW contended that—as per the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces’ (SCAF) Constitutional Declaration, approved by referendum in a March 2011–MPs should choose from representatives nominated by civil society organizations, such as unions.  The MP’s job is to elect, not nominate representatives. The UEW had thus submitted 10 names to the committee, including honored Egyptian intellectuals, but the list was ignored.

Ironically enough, the  UEW’s list of nominees was itself controversial. Union member Fares Khedr said the list was not compiled through public discussion, and was based more on the writers fame than real expertise.

Among writers’ predictions of troubled times for the ongoing revolution, novelist Gamal El-Ghitany told Ahram Online that the Muslim Brotherhood dominated parliament “stands against writers and literature.” He also expressed surprise for the lack of reaction by liberal factions—that was Sunday. Monday, the reaction was growing.

While acknowledging divisions in the intellectual movement against the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood and a dim future ahead, El-Ghitany still believes that “Egypt will not become an Islamic country.”

Novelist Mekkawi Said saw the exclusion of academics as more extreme that than the former regime’s appeasing pretenses, and predicted an impoverishment of the people’s political consciousness as a result.

But lawyer and writer Ahmed Zaghloul El-Shaity expressed a different view to  Ahram Online saying the constitutional battle has been fought and settled: by an “unofficial coalition of the ruling military council, Islamists and ex-members of the Mubarak administration.” And if Kehdr is right—“We have idiots for politicians that do not read daily newspapers”—the revolution is stalling.

UPDATE–March 28, 2012
Some insightful analysis at “The Arabist“:

If there is a sizeable number of people who think the constitution is illegitimate and the consensus around is weak, there is a risk down the line that this would make a coup (soft or hard) easier. Egypt will be naturally coup-prone in the next few years, and while the Brothers say they want consensus, the Salafists have a more winner-takes-all approach and want to nominate figures such as Sheikh Mohammed Hassan, a popular preacher, who will push for a very strict interpretation of Sharia

UPDATE–March 29, 2012
Egypt Independent reported that following today’s withdrawal of Al-Ahzar‘s sole representative from the constituent assembly, the FJP yielded 10 of its own seats to liberal appointees. Speaking to Egypt Independent, Moety Bayoumy, a member of the university’s Islamic Research Academy, had admonishing words for the Muslim Brotherhood:

It should not be at all that one trend dominates the constituent assembly as it violates the principles of Islam. […] I have said from the beginning that the constituent assembly is invalid for so many reasons […] I say to these Islamists, you represent certain people, because the true Islamists who understand Islam, and its position on the civil state, seek directly by virtue of their culture and their knowledge of Islam to include all the effective elements in the Muslim community to develop a new constitution. This is the true Islamic society.